Friday, November 13, 2015

Rules of changing voice

Active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম:
Rule 1:
a) Active voice এর subject টি passive voice এর object হয়ে যায়।
b) Active voice
এর object টি passive voice এর subject রুপান্তর হয়।
c)
মূল verb এর past participle হয় এবং subject tense অনুসারে auxiliary verb/be verb হয়
Rule 2:
Indefinite tense:
a) Present indefinite – am, is, are.
b) Past indefinite – was, were.
c) Future indefinite – shall be, will be.
Continuous tense:
a) Present Continuous- am being, is being, are being.
b) Past Continuous – was being, were being
c) Future Continuous - shall be being, will be being.
Perfect tense:
a) Present Perfect – has been, have been.
b) Past Perfect- had been.
c) Future Perfect- shall have been, will have been.
Rule 3:
a) Present indefinite tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + am/is/are + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active – I play football.
Passive- Football is played by me.
Active- They eat rice.
Passive- Rice is eaten by them.

b) Present continuous tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + am being/is being/are being + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I am playing football.
Passive: football is being played by me.
Active: He is eating rice.
Passive: Rice is being eaten by him.

c) Present perfect tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + have been/ has been + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: He has eaten rice.
Passive: Rice has been eaten by him.
Active: I have played football.
Passive: Football has been played by me.

d) Past indefinite tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + was/were + v3+ by + subject এর object
Active: I ate rice.
Passive: Rice was eaten by me.
Active: They played football.
Passive: Football were played by them.

e) Past continuous tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + was being/were being + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I was eating rice.
Passive: rice was being eaten by me.
Active: They were catching fishes.
Passive: Fishes were being caught by them.


f) Past perfect tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + had been + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I had eaten rice.
Passive: Rice had been eaten by me.
Active: we had dug the cannel.
Passive: The cannel had been dug by us.

g) Future indefinite tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure: Object এর subject + shall be/will be + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I will eat rice.
Passive: Rice will be eaten by me.
Active: They will play football.
Passive: Football will be played by them.

h) Future continuous tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + shall be being/will be being + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I will be eating rice.
Passive: Rice will be being eaten by me.
Active: They will be playing football.
Passive: Football will be being

i) Future perfect tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + shall have been /will have been + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I will have eaten rice.
Passive: Rice will have been eaten by me.
Active: They will have caught the fish.
Passive: The fish will have been caught by them.

Rule 4:
May, might, can, could, must, ought to, going to active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + may, might, can, could, must, ought to, going to এর পরে be + v3+ by + subject এর object.
Active: I may help you.
Passive: you may be helped by me.
Active: you must do the work.
Passive: The work must be done by you.
Active: we ought to obey our teachers.
Passive: our teachers ought to be obeyed by us.
Active: we are going to open a shop.
Passive: A shop is going to be opened by us.
Rule 5:
Imperative sentence এর active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
A) শুধু মাত্র মূল verb দিয়ে শুরু যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let + object
এর subject + be + v3
Active: close the door.
Passive: Let the door be closed.
Active: shut the window.
Passive: Let the window be shut.

B) Do not দিয়ে শুরু যুক্ত যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let not + object
এর subject + be + v3
Active: Do not close the door.
Passive: Let not the door be closed.
Active: Do not shut the window.
Passive: Let not the window be shut.

C) Let এর পর যদি কোন ব্যক্তিবাচক object (me, us, you, them, him, her)থাকে এবং তা যদি Imperative sentence হয়, তাহলে active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let + object
এর subject + be + v3 + by + ব্যক্তিবাচক object.
Active: Let me play football.
Passive: Let the football be played by me.
Active: Let us sing a song.
Passive: let a song be sung by us.
Active: let him give the chance.
Passive: let the chance be given by him.

D) Never যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let not + object
এর subject + ever be + v3
Active: Never tell a lie.
Passive: Let not a lie ever be told.
Active: Never go there.
Passive: let not there ever be gone.


E) মূল verb এর পর যদি কোন ব্যক্তিবাচক object (me, us, you, them, him, her) থাকে এবং তা যদি Imperative sentence হয়, তাহলে active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure: Let + direct object টি বসবে (মূল verb এর পর যে object টি থাকে + be + v3 + for +ব্যক্তিবাচক object
Active: Buy me a shirt.
Passive: let a shirt be bought for me.
Active: Give me a glass of water.
Passive: Let a glass of water be given for me.
Interrogative sentence

Rule 6:
Interrogative sentence যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
A) Structure:
Interrogative sentence
কে Assertive sentence রুপান্তর করে নিতে হবে + রুপান্তরিত Assertive sentence এর active voice থেকে passive voice রুপান্তর করতে হবে + এবার রুপান্তরিত passive voice এর auxiliary verb টিকে প্রথমে বসাতে হবে + শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে। **** Tense অনুসারে করতে হবে
Active: Have you eaten rice?
Assertive: You have eaten rice.
Assertive
এর passive: Rice has been eaten by you.
Passive
রুপান্তর: Has rice been eaten by you?
Active: Is he reading a book?
Assertive: He is reading a book.
Assertive
এর passive: A book is being read by him.
Passive
রুপান্তর: Is a book being read by him?
Active: Did you play football?
Assertive: you played football.
Assertive
এর passive: Football was played by you.
Passive
রুপান্তর: Was football played by you?

B) Who যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Who
এর পরিবর্তে By whom + tense person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + object এর subject + অনেক সময় tense অনুযায়ী কর্তার পরে be/ being/ been বসাতে হয় + V3+ ?.
Active: Who is playing football?
Passive: BY whom is football being played?
Active: who will help me?
Passive: By whom will I be helped?

C) Whom যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Whom
এর পরিবর্তে who + tense person অনুযায়ী
Auxiliary verb + V3 + by + subject এর object +?
Active: Whom did you see on the road?
Passive: who was seen by you on the road?
Active: Whom has he murdered in this home?
Passive: Who is murdered by him in this home?

D) What যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
What + tense
person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + V3 + by + subject এর object +?
Active: What do you want?
Passive: What is wanted by you?
Rule 7:
Subject + verb + object + present participle যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + tense person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + v3 + present participle যুক্ত অংশটি + by + subject এর object.
Active: I saw him playing cricket.
Passive: He was seen playing cricket by me.
Active: I took him for my friend.
Passive: He was taken for my friend by me.

Rule 8:
Double object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
দুইটা object এর যে কোন একটি subject করতে হয় (personal object কে subject রুপান্তর করলে ভাল) + v3 + tense person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + প্রদত্ত বাকি object টি বসে + by + active voice এর subject টি object রুপে হয়
Active: I gave him a flower. Passive: He was given a flower by me. Active: He teaches us math. Passive: we are taught English by him.

Rule 9:
Complex and compound sentence যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Complex and compound sentence যুক্ত active voice রূপান্তরের সময় উভয় clause এর voice পরিবর্তন হয়
Active: I know that he did the work.
Passive: It is known to me that the work was done by him.
Active: He told me that he had done the work.
Passive: I was told that the work had been done by him.
Note: Active voice “people say” দিয়ে শুরু হলে It is said দিয়ে passive voice করাই ভাল
Active: people say that the lion is the king of forest.
Passive: It is said that the lion is the lion is the king of forest.

Rule 10:
Intransitive verb যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
সাধারনত Intransitive verb এর passive voice হয় না। তবে Intransitive verb এর পরে preposition যুক্ত হয়ে যদি group verb গঠন করে এবং তা Intransitive verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাহলে
Structure: Object টি subject + tense অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + v3 + প্রদত্ত preposition + by + subject টির object
Active: The truck run over the boy.
Passive: The boy was run over by the truck.
Active: they looked at the poor man.
Passive: The poor man was looked at by them.

Rule 11:
Reflexive object (myself, ourselves, yourselves, yourself, themselves, himself, herself) যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Active voice subject
টি অপরিবর্তিত অবস্থায় passive voice এর subject হিসেবে হবে + tense person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + v3 + by + Reflexive object বসবে
Active: He hanged himself.
Passive: He was hanged by himself.
Active: you killed yourself.
Passive: you were killed by yourself.

Rule 12:
Factitive object/Complementary object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Factitive object/Complementary object( select, elect, nominate, make, call, name ইত্যাদি transitive verb থাকা সত্ত্বেও সম্পূর্ণ রুপে অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারে না। পরিপূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করার জন্য অতিরিক্ত object আনতে হয়। এইরুপ অতিরিক্ত object কেFactitive object/Complementary object বলে
Structure:
নামবাচক object টির (me, us, you, them, him, her) object টি subject হয়। + tense person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + v3 + Factitive object + by + subject এর object
Active: They made me captain.
Passive: I was made captain by them.
Active: we call him liar.
Passive: He is called liar by us.

Rule 13:
Cognate object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Cognate object এর সংজ্ঞাকিছু intransitive verb তাদের সমর্থক object নিয়ে transitive verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়। ধরনের object কে Cognate object বলে
Structure: Object টি subject + tense অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + v3 + by + subject টির object
Active: he caught a fish.
Passive: A fish was caught by him.
Active: you ran a race.
Passive: A race was run by you.

Rule 14:
Infinitive যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
প্রদত্ত active voice এর subject + মূল verb + infinitive এর পরের object (যদি থাকে) + to be + infinitive এর পরের verb এর v3.
Active: He wants someone to take camera.
Passive: He wants camera to be taken.
Active: He wants you to write a letter.
Passive: He wants a letter to be taken.

Rule 15:
Gerund combinations অর্থাৎ advise/ propose/ recommend/ suggest + gerund + object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
প্রদত্ত active voice এর subject + মূল verb + that + gerund এর পরের object টি + should be + প্রদত্ত gerund টি verb রূপান্তরিত হয়ে v3 বসে
Active: He suggested giving up smoking.
Passive: He suggested that smoking should be given up.
Active: He wanted playing football.
Passive: He wanted that football should be played.

Rule 16:
Agree, be anxious, arrange, determine, be determined, decide, demand, + infinitive + object object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
প্রদত্ত active voice এর subject + মূল verb + that + infinitive এর পরের + object + should be + infinitive এর পরের verb এর v3.
Active: He decided to buy the house.
Passive: He decided that the house should be bought.
Active: you agreed to sell the house.
Passive: You agreed that the house should be sold.

Rule 17:
One + should যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object
এর subject + should be + v3
Active: one should take care of one’s education.
Passive: Education should be taken care of.
Active: one should tell the truth.
Passive: Truth should be told.


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