Tuesday, November 10, 2015

What is Pronoun and Type of Pronoun

pronouns কাকে বলে? কত প্রকার ও কি কি উদাহরণ সহ লেখ,
Pronoun(সবর্নাম): যে সকল ‘words’ Noun- এর পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত হয় অর্থাৎ noun- এর substitute রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাদেরকে pronoun বলে|
বাক্যে noun যে ভূমিকা পালন করে, pronoun- Noun এর পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত হয়ে ঠিক সে ভূমিকাই পালন করেঅর্থাৎ Pronoun- কোন verb-এর subject এবং object হতে পারে subject বা object না হলে উহার পূর্বেও অবশ্যই preposition বসাতে হবে অন্যথায় উহা বিচ্ছিন্ন word বলে গন্য হবে
সুতরাং noun pronoun ভিন্ন শ্রেনীর হলেও ভূমিকা পালনের প্রেক্ষিতে উহারা একই- group- এর বলে বিবেচিত noun pronoun একে অন্যের equivalent
বাংলায় দুটোকে একত্রেনামপদবলে অভিহিত করা হয়েছে
“A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.” অন্যভাবে বলা যায়, “A word used instead of a noun is called a Pronoun.” সহজভাবে বলা যায়, যে Word কোন Noun এর পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাকে Pronoun বলে
 যেমন : Hasan is a good boy. (Noun)
He goes to school every day. (Pronoun)
He is an intelligent boy. (Pronoun) 
Noun এর মতই Pronoun Subject Object  হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে।
যেমন, I teach him. (আমি তাকে পড়াই)
Pronoun
আবার অনেক সময় অন্য Parts of Speech হিসেবেও ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে। যেমন Who, What ইত্যাদি এরা আবার Conjunction.
Pronoun
আট প্রকার।
.  Personal Pronoun: এগুলো ব্যক্তিবাচক এবং যে কোনো, Number,  পুরুষ বা Case এর হতে পারে। যেমন, I, We, Me, Us, Our, You, He, She, They, Him, His, Its, Their etc.
. Demonstrative: This, That. মূলত দুটোই। তবে One, Ones, None, The same, Such, So এগুলোও হয়। তবে অর্থ এরা যখন Conjunction হয় তখন যেমন সেরকম নয়।
যেমন, So- I think so (আমি এমনটাই/ এটাই/তেমনি/একইরকম) মনে করি।
. Interrogative বা প্রশ্নবোধক; What, Who, Which, Whom, Whose. এগুলো দিয়ে প্রশ্ন তৈরি আমার শিখবো, ইণশাআল্লাহ।
. Relative বা সম্পর্কবাচক: Who, Which Whom etc. I saw the man who was beaten. ( যে লোকটিকে মারা হয়েছিল আমি তাকে দেখেছি)
. Indefinite বা অনির্দিষ্ট: One, None, Other, Another, Naught, Many, Few, Some, Several ( কিছু) , All, Both, Any (যে কোনো)
One should do one's duty. (
দায়িত্ব পালন করা উচিৎ) * এখানে one's এর স্থলে his বলা যাবে না, সাবধান!
. Distributive: Each (প্রত্যেক) , Either (যে কোনো) , Neither (কেউই না, কোনটাই না) , Everyone.
Either of the players scores a century. (
যে কোনো একজন খেলোয়ার সেঞ্চুরি করেন )
. Reflexive বা আত্মবাচক; Myself, Themselves, Yourself, Himself, itself, Ourselves, Herself, Yourselves, Oneself.  মনে রাখতে হবে বহুবচনের নিয়মানুযায়ী একবচন হলে self  আর বহুবচন হলে selves যুক্ত হবে।
. Reciprocal বা পাস্পরিক; Each Other, One another (অর্থ দুটোর একই- ’একে অপরকে’)
We should help each other to live in harmony (
মিলেমিশে বাস করতে হলে আমাদের একে অপরকে সাহায্য করা উচিৎ)


What are pronouns?
Pronouns are words that substitute a noun or another pronoun. Examples of pronouns are he, she, who, themselves...
In the example:
Mike likes his daughter.
Mike and his daughter can be replaced by he and her:
He likes her
DEFINITION: Pronoun is word which we use to replace a person, thing and an animal.
There are many kinds of pronouns as follow.
1) Subject Pronoun
2) Object Pronoun
3) Possessive Adjective
4) Reflexive Pronoun
5) Intensive Pronoun
6) Possessive Pronoun
7) Definite Pronoun
8) Indefinite Pronoun
9) Interrogative Pronoun
10) Relative Pronoun
11) Distributive Pronoun
12) Demonstrative Pronoun
1) SUBJECTIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Subject Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to stand instead of noun which is the subject of the sentence. They are I, We, You, They, He, She and It.
Example:
- You are good student.
- She is a beautiful girl.
- They go to school.
2) OBJECTIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Object Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to stand instead of noun which is the object of the sentence. They are Me, Us, You, Them, Him, Her and It.
Example:
- He kisses her.
- She slaps him.
- They laugh loudly.
3) POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE
DEFINITION: Possessive Adjective is an adjective which is used to show that something belong to somebody. They are My, Our, Your, Their, His, Her and Its.
Example:
- My parents are generous.
- Your car is very modern.
- Their kids study English.
4) REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Reflexive Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to express the action that does not pass from a person to another person, but it come back to the doer of the action as the reflection of the mirror. They are Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Themselves and Yourselves.
Example:
- I cut myself.
- She kills herself.
- It feeds itself.
5) INTENSIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Intensive Pronoun is the pronoun which is used to express the action that goes from one person to another, but it does not come back to the doer of the action. They are Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Themselves and Yourselves.
Example:
- I hit him myself.
- They kill it themselves.
- She teaches us herself.
NOTE: There are two ways of using “YOU” in Reflexive and Intensive Pronoun. If “YOU” is used to refer to one person, we change “YOU” to “YOURSELF”; but if “YOU” is used to refer to two or more people, we change “YOU” to “YOURSELVES”.
Example:
- You should do homework yourself, John. (we speak to John only)
- Jason and Santa, you have to do this task yourselves. (we speak to Jason and Santa)
6) POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Possessive Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to stand instead of noun and possessive adjective. They are Mine, Ours, Theirs, Yours, His, Hers and Its.
Example:
- This car is mine.
- These books are yours.
- Those pictures are theirs.
7) DEFINITE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Definite Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to stand instead of noun and they are clear. They are This, That, These, those and one.
Example:
- I used to do that before.
- She explains these to me.
- I send this to her
8) INDEFINITE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Indefinite Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to stand instead of noun, but they are not clear. They are Some, Any, None, All, Someone, Everything, Many, Nobody, Other and Few.
Example:
- None of us can swim across the sea.
- All students are good.
- Some people can sing the song beautifully.
9) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Interrogative Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to make the question form. They are Who, Whom, Which and What.
Example:
- Who want to meet you?
- What is in the book?
- Which do you need?
10) RELATIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Relative Pronoun is the pronoun that is used to stand instead of noun in adjective clause. They are Who, Whom, Whose, Which, That, When, Where...
Example:
- I know a man whom you met.
- She likes the cat which is white.
- Do you know the girl that is standing over there?
11) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Distributive Pronoun is the pronoun which is used to refer to only a person or a thing. For this reason they are always singular, and they are used with singular verb. They are Each, Either and Neither.
Example:
- Each boy gets the prize.
- Neither of the students feels bored.
- Either of teachers in NIS is unfriendly.
12) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
DEFINITION: Demonstrative Pronoun is the used to point out something or somebody that the listener already understood. They areThis, These, That and Those.
Example:
- This is my friends.
- These are toys.
- That is a picture.

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